The Masculinity of Hippothoos
This paper attempts to resolve the apparent contradictions in the characterization of Hippothoos, the arch-bandit in Xenophon of Ephesus’ Ephesiaka. Hippothoos exhibits certain traits that are diametrically opposed to the ideals of the passive novelistic hero, yet he remains the hero’s friend throughout and in the end is assimilated to him both in social and material terms. In the course of my investigation I will combine data gathered from Greek and Roman texts, including the novels and other narrative literature from the Second Sophistic period, together with modern theoretical approaches on gender and sexuality in order to discover how pederasty, illegal violence, male friendship, and elite masculinity could converge in one character. The conclusion will suggest greater diversity in the male gender ideals of the Greek novel than has generally been acknowledged.